Useful Background Papers

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Useful Background Papers

For reference, we list below a number of papers which discuss the calibration of millimeter data. Where possible, we include a link to a postscript copy of the paper. We urge that the potential observer look these papers over before he/she visits the telescope for the first time.

Inexperienced submillimeter observers must discuss what calibration observations will be necessary for their program with their contact person at the HHT or any Friend of the Telescope.

Postscript versions of the papers are marked where available


  • Papers on site at the HHT


    1. "Secondary Calibrators at submillimetre wavelengths", Sandell, G., 1994, MNRAS, 271, 75.

      The paper discusses secondary calibrators for submillimetre continuum photometry. The data are all calibrated relative to Mars and Uranus.


    2. "Observations of radio lines from unresolved sources: telescope coupling, Doppler effects, and cosmological corrections", Gordon, M. A., Baars, J. W. M., and Cocke, W. J., 1992, AA, 264, 337.

      The paper has a nice section on TA* and TR* conversion to TA


    3. "Calibration at the CSO", Phillips, T. G., 1989, CSO Cookbook.

      Detailed discussion of chopper calibration.


    4. "Absolute Calibration of Millimeter-Wavelength Spectral Lines", Ulich, B. L., and Haas, R. W., 1976, ApJ Supp., 30, 247.

      Discussion of chopper calibration.


    5. "Recommendations for Calibration of Millimeter-Wavelength Spectral Line Data", Kutner, M. L., and Ulich, B. L., 1981, ApJ., 250, 341.

      Formal definitions for TA*, TR*, are presented. A general discussion of calibration is also included.


    6. "Calibration of Spectral Line Data at the IRAM 30m Radiotelescope: Going from backend counts to brightness temperatures", Kramer, C., 1995, IRAM report.

      Discusses the calibration techniques used at the 30m and the OBS routines.


    7. "Main-Beam Efficiency Measurements of the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory", Magnum, J. G., 1993, 105, 117.

      Includes a review of the broadband millimeter and submillimeter continuum emission properties of Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the Moon.


  • Related Papers which may be of interest


    1. "On using the moon as a source with a standard intensity in the 0.1-30 cm wavelength range", Krotikov, V. D., and Pelyushenko, S. A., 1987, Astron. Zh., 64, 417.

      Spectrum of the moon is calculated in the wavelength range 0.1-30 cm.


    2. "The Solar System: (Sub)mm Continuum Observations", Altenhoff, W. J., 1996, Proceedings of the ESO-IRAM-Onsala Workshop on "(Sub)Millimeter Astronomy".

      Discussion of early planet/asteroid/comet surface brightness results.


  • Definitions of Some Common Calibration Terms

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Last updated: 11/08/11.